Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles and Their Applications
Chapter from the book: Çakoğlu, A. H. & Sancar, M. R. (eds.) 2023. Versatile Approaches to Engineering and Applied Sciences: Materials and Methods.

Ebru Karataş
Niğde Ömer Halisdemir University
Fehiman Çimer
Niğde Ömer Halisdemir University


Nanotechnology, which involves the synthesis, design and application of materials or devices with sizes in the 1-100 nm range, has been an important topic in various basic and applied sciences such as medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, chemistry, biology, environment and materials science. Nanotechnology, which has ease of application, is a new emerging technology. The rapid increase in nanotechnological research around the world in recent years has allowed the development of nanoscale devices and new materials. Nanotechnology has opened up new dimensions in the field of biotechnology and nanomedicine, among various other important applications such as drug delivery, electronics, cosmetics, personal care products and biosensors. Nanoparticles (NPs), which form the basis of nanotechnology, have remarkable properties such as specific sizes, surface structures, chemical compositions, large surface area volume ratios, electronic structure, and interfacial reactivity. As the sizes and shapes of NPs change, the physical, chemical, optical, electrical, thermal, catalytic, bioactivity and toxicity properties of the particles also change. NPs of various shapes and sizes are synthesized by three different methods as physical, chemical and biological. Synthesis of NPs by conventional methods such as physical and chemical methods causes high energy consumption, low efficiency, high cost and formation of toxic products. Green synthesis, which has been widely used recently, is a more cost-effective, easy to synthesize and environmentally friendly method using biological agents. Different natural and harmless biomaterials such as plants, plant extracts, fungi, algae, yeasts, bacteria, virus DNA are used for the biological synthesis of different NPs. With this method, the effect of chemicals is greatly reduced and their damage is eliminated as much as possible. In addition, it does not require high pressure and high temperature values. Many metals and metal oxide nanoparticles such as gold, zinc, silver, palladium, manganese, iron oxide, titanium dioxide, copper oxide and lead oxide are synthesized in a single step with the green synthesis method. The fact that the green synthesis method has many advantages compared to other processes and the continuous development of nanotechnology allows the green synthesis method to develop and be used more widely. The aim of this study is to reveal the importance of green synthesis, the biomaterials used in green synthesis, the properties and usage areas of synthesized NPs.


How to cite this book

Karataş, E. & Çimer, F. (2023). Green Synthesis of Nanoparticles and Their Applications. In: Çakoğlu, A. H. & Sancar, M. R. (eds.), Versatile Approaches to Engineering and Applied Sciences: Materials and Methods (pp. 141-153). Özgür Publications. DOI:



March 2, 2023